Friday 27 February 2015

Confederation Cup: Nyanga FULL AGAINST THE BDF GADO TODAY.........!!!!

Nyanga is ready for anything! If you do not agree, today at 2:30 at night waiting to see at work against BDF XI.

Yanga requires uniform of any kind in order to move forward, or preferably victory, just cool too!

Yanga whole band mandalizi Done it for replay African Confederation Cup against the team of Botswana Defence Force, matches to be held in Lobatse Stadium, 70 kilometers from the city here.

Thursday 26 February 2015

Nipples AZIRAI IN coffin.............

In this article Johari has opened a lot, read it;

 Reporter: Why do often like to mingle with fellow mastaa?

Johari: Know'm a firm which time I need to be there, and if you belong, najumuika with colleagues when necessary pa as at funerals.

 Author: Since you are logged into the film industry there mastaa who often put them clear their partners but you it happened is what?

Johari: You know by now is like a sister to mastaa, keep them clear act of lovers, many have their brains are not fully mature, but najitambua and I understand the minds of men, it introduces today tomorrow kakukimbia will be introducing many?

Reporter: Why there are rumors that Ray was nasty when prohibition naming many know is your partner?

Johari: I do not discuss anything about Ray because everyone has his life and why anikataze?

Reporter: There are many men out there like here now but are afraid knowing that mastaa unable betrothal to ordinary people, you lizungumziaje it?

Johari: No! First by my side I need to marry a common man who can cared about me and know my value and not the kujibweteka, kuchakarika know and I do not choose, just harmony.

Author: Mastaa most do not work often rely on special film that does ziwasaidii, you lizungumziaje it?

Johari: That even though I very linaniumiza that many female mastaa not send, a large percentage are dependent on men, but I can see it better for you to be satisfied with one of your fellow than one thousand.

Author: Often seen in the theater, why?

Johari: Great is work and lack of time, I do not want to compromise such places.

Reporter: Do you have any bifu and Chuchu Hans?

Johari: MMH! I am not, I do not want to speak it, sorry.

Author: Time is on to close many mastaa have children, how do you wait?

Johari: I do not like anyone who does not mount a child, for my part I must look good father whom I bore.

Author: These thank you Johari.

Johari: Welcome tena.Nilioga, I changed clothes, and I got to the place to get one hot, one cold so long chasing back to sleep. Then I went to stay is in one pub is near the National Housing Office Ubungo, they called CCM. Too wide a lay service vehicles.
It lay just came one sister and my neighbor sitting on a chair while greet.
"What?" KEEP OWN ...

"Poa adult?"
"Mi widely grown. I can connect with you here? "He told me the sister who is black casual appearance, thin as a hair timtim ...
"Did I hear you are told there are Marines at Primary School Ubungo National Housing?" He asked the sister as she moves the seat forward.

"Who are you?"
"My name Salama. Live there before. "
"Did you hear it?" I asked.
"There's my friend called Hope, heard you told by an elder or so."
"It is true I was told," I replied.

"There are very unfriendly, the mango is not very good, but because there is a neighborhood school," said Salama looking at me for a little attention.
"There is a neighborhood school or at school?" I asked.
"It's neighbor, when not at school itself."

We talked a lot and Peace, but in all I was surprised to hear Safe saying mi anifahamu better when I know I did not remember.
But at the end of it all, Salama died going had to wash her son and I stood up to leave.

My course was and just stop Circle of Arts who is famous for Ubungo sites and Sinza probably a large part of Kinondoni.
When nashuka towards Shekilango Road, I was on the road no one man nakaribia vice called me by name, I turned and said unto me:
"Come and have patience with here At the gates I come now."

I did not I know but I also knew that he was knew now he would tell me what it was back in probably wear shoes because there At the gates when he was wearing slippers.
At the gates I went up there to wait. I stood there for about ten minutes the man does not have arisen. But there he stood there as symbols of shoes, like the soles or slippers. I wanted to leave, but suddenly there came a daughter who could kumkadiria as has sixteen years. Alinisogelea and asked:

"Let's told anyone requiring At the gates stood here, right?"
I responded is true. He went on to say:
"It really came here At the gates did not find the person you yaembiwa neither indicative of the presence of more than seeing someone slippers marks where the unknown is the man to call or not."
"It's true," I continue to give an answer to only shortcut.
"Now you think the person who called you is in here inside?"
"I do not know," I said as I left my.

"The mind worked overtime, thinking about the situation. I mean starting to be told that in a tree near the school there are Marines to talk to Safe and later called the man do not even know.

I went to meet my applause. It is Joseph and Paul. Richard and Erick them I left them Sinza areas. I yearned kuwasimulia wonderful tragedy that has begun kuninyemelea by far but I said we nijiridhishe first.

For that we drink while we agree that six o'clock at night will disperse. But the accounts of it, scattering us was stagnant Bajaj Legho must take and pass through to Ubungo which is currently reserved for pitch. And we already been on a tree they leave me there.

It is Joseph who began to stand while he sends glasses mouth to finish his beer, Paul and he stood up and I simama.Sikuwa with the idea of ​​the water in a tree or on orange tree not mind ilishachangamshwa and alcohol!
Bajaj ilitubeba according to the centers, began to enter Paul as his center of decline is Kimara Korogwe, followed Joseph, he his station is Kimara Gunpowder I follow Mwembeni I center on the water.

The driver was burned oil, brake first and take it down to me. Joseph also went down, and he played a little music that was blaring from inside the Bajaj So then he went in and I started to leave.
When I leave, my heart says: "human beings are very strange things. Wherein ooh! Mwembeni comprehensive schools Marines! Now me and waterways where to where? "

When I say that I was passing in front of the school's middle so I happen to side with the parking of vehicles. Suddenly in front of me was a woman who seemed to come wearing the discharge.

All he was near me, I'll smell very fragrant. Ikakumbuka mental notes address that, Marines are very fragrant spices. I started as kuogopa.Nilijikaza but body began excitement blood, hair zikasimama, I felt the cold of fear. When we met, he was forced to pass left me even though I yes I was in the same direction.
"How are you?" I greeted him.

Instead of him to respond to my greeting, he hiss One msonyo provides a very high voice. stagnant body die not numb, I feel I can not walk. I stood I turned back, I saw, but I saw an old man coming back to me in the sense that we were accompanied.
"Hail old?"
"Fantastic, hello?"

"Hi. Umepishana one woman said, right now? "I asked the old man.
"No, time, or this very moment?"
"Now only. Ie when nakusalimia if he would be between you and me. "
"No, I have not seen."

"Okay. Did not you hear the smell of pafyumu? "
"No, I hear."
"Ed! I'm here I feel like I am blowing. "
For answers to the old man and the environment that I walk very fast and downward slope to go home. I arrived as natetemeka, strong body is finished, but I tried the contraction of my wife to not discover the difference.
I met the living room watching episodes of hooked mbalimbBaada the statement, Peace lilimsaka Chuchu through his mobile phone and asked him where he admitted the incident.

Here: "That I can not explain about the film because it was a risk index and do not even know my mother saw it happens for real.

"But to me that's fifty was needing it, nilale as truly dead and you can not believe lilichimbwa to the tomb of the truth. I consumed not less than once. My breath disconnected as I pomWakati Chuchu 'rose', the artist who played the role of mwanakwaya he was still under lying flat he is not conscious of what was going on. "One colleague had summoned the pastor of that church who was nearby for intercession, though the pastor of the film he was an artist Jimy fufu, "said the source.

Some artists began to wonder what caused that situation because it seemed like there are evil spirits who want to assassinations.

"Others asked if anyone has items like amulets or vaccine superstitious things, seem no. But the questions were very much, "said chanzo.sikia son crying." Ali of on TV.Chanzo kikazidi claim that all the surprises that occurred there, 'body' of Chuchu been poured out on the Church of the Sabbath, Mbezi, Dar where mourners as they passed by, His daughter, Farha (9) had tears prompted him Chuchu ajikute expire suddenly!

AMALIZA south, I can not wake up
Stated that it was time the piece was finished with her daughter goes right to see his mother in the coffin, Chuchu not awakened to proceed with other pieces which condemned them adults inspecting and discover the unconscious.

"People started delirious, others knew he lost life. But the great God Chuchu he recovered and found his son still crying for power. I had other artists intervene reassuring, "kiliseChuchu had experienced such a situation recently as" locations "to perform this movie sites Mbezi Kimara in Dar es Salaam where tandem with him, other artist who has played the role of mwanakwaya he was unconscious when a piece that kikirekodiwa .

One source from within the group of artists who played the film says that, Chuchu was hit with it due to concerns with the courage to Himself scaled.

"First, he shows concern Chuchu drama to introduce the same piece he is in the coffin he had died of a disease like mad made from stress after being raped.

"Worse, the director and he said it should be lying in a coffin Lay wool to plug holes in the nose as dead imposed," said chanzo.Kwa according to psychological questions for performing, after the artist drama film about violence any bloodshed, will pass, death or anything that is painful for humanity must aombewe and religious leaders to put the same spirit perform.

Psychologists say that the artist playing the role of such a hivihihivi kujiacha risks over time it became infected and the acting is his daily life. That is why some artists worldwide film lives and they would be playing the same film.

Chid Benz ALIPA fined 900,000 / =, AACHIWA FREE AND COURTS..............!!!

Kisutu Resident Magistrates Court today imemwachia musician Rashid Makwilo 'Chid Benz' after paying a fine of sh. 900,000 following the arrest as a drug.

Chid Benz was arrested last year in the International Stadium of Mwalimu Julius Nyerere in Dar es Salaam as a drug, including marijuana Sokoto.

Musician, who admitted the offense last week, was arrested on the scene together as he prepares to climb flights to Mbeya music festival.

Chidi Benz RELEASE: Kisutu Resident Magistrate's Court today imemwachia musician 'Chid Benz' after paying a fine of 900,000 / = per diagnosed with drugs.
Dear reader, last week I ended up there after he pomuumbua Stumai the lady magician who asked for forgiveness and promised not having repeated again kumuwangia. Stumai warned then the bride was dressed and slept. Dawn Stumai sister was shocked sleep he heard the lady cries. Do what followed? To be together ...

Niliposhtushwa and the cries of the lady who was outside, I heard saying to the mother great that he tired of my character to kumchungulia as he vaa.Kauli the lady surprised, because that was lying in order to sound like the worst mother-largest, woke up but before I was out of the room mom huge entered.

Alipongia asked me severely for what I was namchungulia her mother when she wore, this question made me niduwae for several seconds. "Nakuuliza this, why you looked into the mother when she wore, you have problems with what's in your head?" Stumai says her mother a huge asked.
Following asked it, I looked at the lady who was kept crying and demanding as a great mother saw me I was someone important to stay there, he will leave me stay.

Because he said his words yakuniogopesha truth as I believe always lie and the truth can not go along, I said to the bride say ukweli.Nilipomwambia so she continued to cry when I told him the great mother that grandmother had a trick because I looked like he claimed.
"My mother does not lie, aongope to what may?" Stumai says mother older mwambia.WASANII Bongo Fleva, Baby Joseph Madaha 'Baby Madaha' and Isabela planter today expect kuoneshana work on one platform in the Hall of Masai Club, Kinondoni in Dar.

Those artists who have made dance in conjunction with each other doing alone, expect to identify a song they who associate LEGENDARY Fleva Bongo, Abdul Sykes 'Dully', I.

Averting the evil I decided to tell a great mother that if he was saying was really forgive me and if he was cheating then the truth would be known soon.
I decided to say so because I knew he would be caught up in the bride eighteen because he would not leave kunifuatilia aiming to hurt me.

"It will Stumai, today is the second time your grandmother complains that it looked when she wore, she complain third time I care if you have a small child here you leave me," Stumai says the older woman said.

After giving the statement the lady was very happy, heart, I say that you have never experienced it is similar to the dark night, I want to tell a great mother about the character he possessed his mother's magic.

As I've explained in the past that witches are very wonderful people and do not give up to monitor people even if they are overwhelmed, the bride did not cease.
So last night, me and my son, we do not sleep because of bewilderment contents in the room, was a cat cry, mouse chase to rise up on their heads.
However, they could harm us, despite the awakening grandmother who was tuwangia made himself sleeping soundly.

The next day I was the first to wake up, he followed a great mother and grandmother and her husband became final, I pomuamkia responded to whisper as he was ill.
So last night as we slept, I heard my son crying a lot and the whole room was smelly smell like a beast that rot.

I wondered what it was that caused the smell that would get answers because there was not a cat or a mouse who died in since morning I made pads each kona.Kwa that the situation was not good at all, I got up and started to track the smell that was coming from where I found it under the hollowness of the bed .
To be under the bed I lay soaking sprinkled with baby clothes I owned I zilowekea I brought it out, I could not believe I had seen because there were feces as the three men kimetanda.

That surprised me, following my son's tent with difficulty due to the smell of poop that I put it under a bed soaking, I realized grandmother was lying on my back comfortably lifted his legs up.

Because I kwishabaini was light and act so he made him, I asked him why he wanted to kuniulia son with his magic, he did not tell me more than to move his feet up.
In anger I told him the lady that katumia different ways kuniwangia but while they still did then decided to kill my son in that way, but he did not answer.

I left the room to go knocking on the door of the room a great mother and her husband, they woke up I told them to go and see what he did bride.
"Kafanyeje why you shocking for us tonight?" The older woman asked.
I told them just to go to our room and See for yourself, and they came out and we came up with, while I was carrying my son, who was a tent with difficulty.

Mama had before, he entered he met with a very bad smell in the room asked me what you have, before I answered her husband and he asked the same question.
I told mom inhale soaking the clothes under the bed that was my son, when the bride was haha ​​do not know.

Mother had bowed to the NO the basin, due to the strong smell got up and asked me was what I told him was NO only the beseni.Alipofanya so was surprised to meet with human feces containing kimetapakaa up, asked me who did as I told him to ask his mother.
When he asked the grandmother had remained silent, I said I nipomuuliza did not give me an answer, my mother was very upset, she you will be a good night for our people, niwasihi fans of Bongo Fleva, reach in abundance as we call our songs as Amore, Summer Hollyday, accept, Procedures and I that we associate Dully , "said Baby frills.

Away from strict shoo from the diva, this show is also a veteran himself itasindikizwa Dully, Daz Baba, nasre and Sela MoOya Gangwe makachaa and maduu what happens? Dah! Cool you are my children? This lamp is barida does not hiccup elderly! Or what? Welikamu on lighting moo Stori my people power. Unakosaje now kumingo and father of the father's role jamvini here? Stay here you will be slick. Then the same!

My no Loko ishu of dizaini zimenipotezea quite Mudi Hey chaliiangu. These are the space Sela these children with albinism are our people power? Nikisikia someone Untangle are namaindi Kinoma am at lavu courses and they kinomanoma.

If you did not know, these are my washkaji matalenti baab'kubwa Kinoma and have contributed to build our nesheni Hey. Truu, families are very comfortable and we walavu same. What faucet says you untangle you have kibosile or corrupt? These are many local mboyoyo that end of dei is nonsense!

Throw in Stori of Loko dheni we want to see them mambulula considered action and legal and if posibo quite see each loop openi head.

Oyo let's dive into our mitikasi course I continued these ishu mastresi najiongezea only.
Tudei wait Moko let us listori of my worn-out when the lights Nyamala Bongo plains. Thank's my Mshkaji ampilifai that gained Kishori Kare shame. Fresh kajazia child went to schools. Going to neimu of Judy.

Given that my Sela had haso kufaindi chief saw what he losti taimu what. He did pull Kishori fastafasta prosesi the ghettos to ajilie her for his pleasure.

Truu bana, he managed to put Judy kachaa the role of ghettos dheni plasi life began. Now sitting and already exists in the soft laifu dheni have found a mmoko Kidi years after bee.
Up and down whereas before Judy impress with a steady wind role he was Kidi she found while yunivasiti. Now ishu will mtambulishaje for mai became chief?

Ebana for experiential I have no hard ishu such a course do not know the chief elder will ipokeaje!
My son gave something to know dheni WANI dei been muibukia mamsapu and kumteli that has Kidi the role of the program along so he wanted to bring in steady wind.

You know what kilihapeni chaliiangu? Dah! Asikwambia person. Palichimbika mother and mother's shame and put strike does not want to hear ishu like that and was threatened that if he brought selaa Kidi scan dheni when he gave something to breath.

Another alternative way mai chief is given is that as the father of the father shall bring Kidi manfully dheni steady wind when he (Kishori) will sepetuka for absent son maparenti zake.Asikuteli head cross kinomanoma monocle. These would be you plaque adult advisor alone would do? Dah! Ie mi himself as only I am mentoring courses sizi here Sela is mlavu chief and he mlavu Kidi too.

Then I saw my son, Lucky, who is associate psychology Kare said niteli only ize why? Kachaa kanifungua son should not be surprised if the size of the truck, the driver's position is the same! Family was meant to be on a usi Sela is the head of the family so it lies stagnant position so he should do is bring Kidi steady wind as Strategic Strategic be. Wherein the membrane characteristic own! Who says ishu of patriarchy? Bb.ukua the basin took it out outside.

PROF Lipumba dock and HIS MEMBERS..............!!!!

Building Defect Diagnosis is the branch of Building Pathology that deals with methodologies and techniques for determining the condition, internal environment and performance of property. It also cover the investigation and commissioning of the services within the buildings, this task requires the practitioner to adopt a systematic approach and exercise professional judgment when investigating building problems such as defects, poor indoor air quality and lack of performance.    On this report the defect diagnosis was conducted on block D building at Mbeya University of Science and Technology (MUST). There areas investigated were walls (both internal and external walls), floor (both ground floor and second floor) along the corridors, stairs and toilets. The investigation was carried on 23rd April, 2014 for internal features (corridors, internal stairs, internal wall and toilets) and on 25th   April, 2014 for external walls. The condition of the site was sufficient for the task to be carried out. Chairman of the National Association of Citizens CUF, Professor Ibrahim Lipumba, today has led the dock in Kisutu Resident Magistrate Court in Dar es Salaam, to answer charges of violating the command of the police force and marching.

Lipumba and other members 32 are accused of making demonstration area of ​​Mbagala in Dar es Salaam, contrary to regulations, where the protests that were planned by the party's for celebrating remember the 14 years since the murder and persecution of the people of Zanzibar and the mainland were made and departing vessels GPL usalama.Mpaka court the case was still ongoing day to u.Mkutano the owakutanisha Ministers of five East African countries, including the ambassadors of their country in the US was held today on the Wednesday, February 25, 2015 at the Embassy of Tanzania in the United States, meeting This was related to the preparation of the agreement to sign trade and investment cooperation between the United States and East African countries namely Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.
The conference was led by its chairman, Hon. Harrison Mwakyembe Minister of Tanzania in East Africa's parliament with the Secretary General of the East African Community Ambassador Dr. Richard Sezibera from Burundi.
Other participants in the meeting from Tanzania were growing the Minister of Industry and Trade of Tanzania, Hon. Dr. Abdallah Kigoda, Minister of Transport, Hon. Samuel Sitta, Maria refuge Deputy Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Amantius Sole, Tanzania EAC Deputy Secretary General, Ambassador of Tanzania United States Hon. Liberata Mulamula.
Participants at the conference from Burudi were the Minister of Trade and Industry of Burundi Mhe.Mzigiyimana Marie Rose, United States Ambassador to Burundi, Hon. Ndabashinze Ernest, who is a consultant Glorioje Ntibarutaye office of the Ministry of Commerce of Burundi,
Representatives from Kenya were James Kiiru who is assistant director MFA & IT Kenya, Ambassador Nelson Ndirangu who is director MFA & IT Kenya, Ms. Phylus Kandie Cabinet Secretary MEACT Kenya, Ronnie Gitonga Deputy Secretary Embassy of Kenya in the US and Esther Chemirmir PA to CS MEACT Kenya.
Representatives from Uganda were growing it in the United States Ambassador to Uganda Hon. Alfred WAM and STILSON Muhwezi. Rwanda were represented by the Minister of Bisahara and Industry Hon. Robert Opirah and Innocent Kabandana.
The conference is a continuation of the meeting at the end of last year the United States ilipowaalika Presidents of Africa at the same meeting led by President Barack Obama.Kampuni of Zanzibar Media Corporation which is proprietary to Zenji Fm Radio and newspaper me
Information, tomorrow Friday 27 February they'd give awards to the best performers of Zanzibar.
Speaking to this newspaper the awards coordinator Nd Said Khamis said a total of 76 participants were competing in 20 components, and the winners of the components that are expected to be rewarded with cash.
Also Said He added that these awards that are 8 out this time have shown that there is awareness of Zanzibar artists to be able to make a good and competitive work in the music industry in Zanzibar.
These festivals that take place in the Pool Safely hall, guest is expected to be the Minister of NcMAHAKAMA Kisutu Resident Magistrate today imemwachia musician Rashid Makwilo 'Chid Benz' after paying a fine of sh. 900,000 following the arrest as a drug.

Chid Benz was arrested last year in the International Stadium of Mwalimu Julius Nyerere in Dar es Salaam as a drug, including marijuana Sokoto.

Musician, who admitted the offense last week, was arrested on the scene together as he prepares to climb flights to Mbeya music festival.

Chidi Benz RELEASE: Kisutu Resident Magistrate's Court today imemwachia musician 'Chid Benz' after paying a fine of 900,000 / = per diagnosed with drug kulevya.hi White House Office of the President Dr Mwinyi Haji Makame


§  Thermal  insulation  may  be  defined  as  a  parries   to  the  natural  flow of  heat  from  an area  of  high  temperature  to  an area  of  low  temperature.
§  In  buildings  this  flow  is  generally  from  the  interior  to  the  Exterior.
§  The  flow  of heat  through  the  solid  walls  of  the  buildings  is  mainly  by  conduction,
§  The  amount  of  heat  transmit  depending  on:- 
                   i.        The  temperature  difference  between  the two  surfaces,
                ii.        The thickness  of  the  immediate  medium,
             iii.        The  area  of  the  exposed  materials, 
              iv.        The  time  of  heat  flow and
                 v.        The  rate  of  heat  transfer of  the  conductions  of  the  intervening  materials.

Factors  influencing  the  flow  of  heat  from  the exterior into  the  interior of  the  building:-
i.           Thermal  conductivity  of  the  external  walls  of  the  building  e.g. Walls, roof and  floors 
ii          Deference  of  temperature  between  both  the  faces  of  the  walls
iii.     The area of the external walls of the building.
iv.      The total area covered by doors and windows.
v.         The  rate  of  air  movement  through  the, enclosed   spaces  within  the  building  or  walls.

Types of insulting materials

There  are  various  types  of  insulating  materials  which are  describes  a s  follows :-

Block Insulation
It  is  made  up  of  cork  boards, cellular  glass  blocks, rubber  blocks, mineral wood  blocks  or  wood  fibers  bound  together  with  cement.

Blanket Insulation
 These  are made  up of   flexible  fibers  materials  and  are  available  in  rolls and Its  thickness  varies  from  10 to 80 mm.

 Batts Insulation
These  are  soft  materials  similar of blanket insulations, but  are  smaller  in size  and greater  in  thickness.

 Loose fills
The  materials  like  glass  wool, wood  fibre, slag  wool  etc  are  loosely   pored  into  the  studding  space  and  other  similar  spaces.

 Economics of thermal Insulation
§  By  providing  the  thermal  insulation in  the  building , considerable  expenditure  in  heating, cooling   or air condition  is saved.
§  Moreover   the  temperature  inside  the  building  is  maintained  more  uniformly

Note; before fixing a particular type of insulation materials, the economic feasibility should be also considered.

The  following  factors  need  careful  consideration  while  considering  the  economic  feasibility  of  thermal   insulting  materials:-

   i.        The  cost  of  insulating  material 
ii.        The cost of  placing  and  fixing  the  insulation
iii.        The  education in  the  cost  of  heating  and  cooling
iv.        The rescuing expenditure to maintain the standard of insulation.


The  term  “ a caustics” may  be  defined  as  the  science  of  sound, and  it  describes  the  origin, propagation  and  sensation  of  sound

What is sound?
Anything  that  can  be  heard is  a sound, whether  it  is made  by  conversation  machinery  or  walking  on  a hard  surface.

Sound can differ   in two important ways,
§  By  loudness
§  By pitch.

 A  sound  is  produced  when the  medium  enclosing  the  body  is  compressed  suddenly.  A sound   travels in the form of wave through certain medium.

when  a  sound  is produced  within  the  building  three  reactions  can occur
   i.        The pressure  or  sound  waves  can  come  into  the  contact  with  the walls  floor  and  ceiling  and be  reflected  back  into  the  building.
ii.        Some of  the  sound can  be  absorbed  by  these  surfaces  and  / or  the  finishes.
iii.        The  sound  waves  upon  reading  the  walls, floor  and  ceiling  can  set  these  members vibrating  in  unison  and  thus  transmit  the  sound  to  adjacent  rooms .

What is Noise?
A  noise  can  be  defined  as  any  undesired  sound and  may  have  any  one  of the  following  four  effects  on  man:-
i.   Annoyance
ii.                Disturbance  of  sleep
iii.             Interfere  with  the  ability  to hold normal  conversation
iv.              Damage of hearing.

The  approach  to  solve  noise  or  sound  problems  can  be:

i.   Reduce  the  noise  emitted  at  the  source  by  such  dances  as  mufflers and  mounting on resilient  pads.
ii.                Provide a reasonable degree of sound insulation reduce the amount. of  sound  transmitted
iii.             Isolate  the  source  and  the  receiver
iv.              Provide  required standard  of  walls  or  floor  structures  and  finish  which  can  reduce  sound  transmission.

External noise
The  main  barrier  to  external  noise  is  provided  by  the  shell  or  envelopes  of  the  building, the  three  main  factors  being:-
i.   The mass  of  the enclosing  structure
ii.                The  continuity  of  the  structure 
iii.             Isolation  by  double  leaf construction  or  cavity  wall  construction  when using light  weight  materials.


Thermal conductivity
Is  the measure of materials, ability  to transmit hear  and  Expressed as the  head  flow  in  watts per  m2

Thermal resistively 
this  is  the ability  of a materials, regardless of  size  or thickness, to resist  the passage  of  heart  and is the  reciprocal  of the  thermal  conductivity.

Thermal resistance
This is the product of thermal resistant and thickness in metres.


The following floors structures and finisher can be used to reduce the transmission of sound. Refer sketches, Construction technology hand book; author Childley

Concrete floors

 Floating timber rafter



Timber floating floors


Fire  protection is  the  protection of  the  occupants, occupants and structure  of  a building  from  the  risks   associated with  fire.

It  is  practically  impossible  to eliminate  completely  the  chances of  fire  in a  building  as  it  is  a fact  that  no  building  materials  is  fully  fire  proof.

Characteristics of five- resisting materials
i.   The  material  should be  composed  of  such  elements  which  do not  disintegrate  under  the  effect of greeter heat
ii.                The materials  should  have low  co- efficient of thermal  expansions, so  that  the  excessive  expansion  of  a  particular  member  which  may  lead  structural  instability  is prevented.
iii.             The  materials  should  not  contract  rapidly  when  it  is  cooled with  water  at high  temperature.
iv.              The materials should be compact which cannot easily catch fire.

Fire resisting propertied of common building materials

§  Stone
The stone is a bad conductor of heat.
The stone  disintegrates  into  small  pieces  when  is  healed  and suddenly  cooled.

§  Bricks
 is  a bad  conductor  of  hint  and  it  is  rest  heat  up to  120c0
If  the  quality  of  the  montar  and  workmanship  are  good, the  bricks  masonry
Resist afire & a greater extend.

§  Timber.
 Timber is a bad conductor of heat .
Timber ignites  and  get  rapidly  destroyed  in  case  of  fire.

§  Steel
Steel  is  a  good  conductor of  heat  and  therefore  it  is  quickly  heated  in  case of fire.
§  Concrete
Concrete is a bad conductor.
It can be used as an effective fire resisting materials.

General guide lines for fire proof of the buildings.

Alarm system
This  is  installed  to give  an  alarm  and  call  for  assistance in  case  of  fire. this  system  may be  automatic  or normal.

Protection of openings
The openings of the buildings should be well protected.
In case  of  fire, the inhabitants  of  the  building  can  come  out  from  these  protected  openings

Common wall
When  a fire- resisting  building  is  located  at  the  site  of  another  building
The  common wall  should  be  of  a  minimum  thickness  of  two  bricks.
The  common wall  should  be  raise  above  roof  level  by  at  least  one  meter.

Emergency stairs of a ladder should be provided   in the fire resisting building. The  ladder  should  made  with  fire  resisting  materials with  a  fire- proof  door.

the  floor  in  such  building should  be  of  R.C.C of at  least  150mm  thickness
the  floor  should  be prowled  with  out ward  slope  to  drain  the  water when – fire  fighters  are working.

 Fire extinguishing arrangements
This arrangement depends upon the importance of the building. The commonly used equipment for fire extinguishing equipment:-
   i.        Manual fire- extinguishing equipment
ii.        Internal hydrants
iii.        Automatic sprinkler installations

Topic No 4


 Floor finishes for domestic buildings include a wide range of alternative

The  factors  that  may  influence  the  choice  of  floor  finish  depends on  the  use  of  the  floor  space  and  limits on cost.

The following should be considered for choice of floor finish.

 Resistance to Wear
The  type of  wear  that  is  normal  in  a  specific part  of  a building  so that  it  lasts many  years without  replacement.

Resistance to grease and oil
the  floor  should  not  be  manage  by  grease and  oil  spills  and  they  should  be  wiped up from the surface.

Easy of clearing
surfaces  that  allow  dirt  to  easily  penetrate  are harder  to  keep  clean. The choice of floor should be easily to be cleaned.

Tendency of reducing   noise
hard  surfaces  do  not  loser  sound so they  are nosier  than  soft  surfaces.

Economic factor 
The  costs  vary enormously  for the  huge range of finishes  e.g. cement  screed  is  more  cheaper  compared  to  carpet, wood  block or  floor  files.

Controlling of warmth or coolness
Hard, smooth surfaces are cool to walk on because they conduct heat away.
But  soft  textured  finishes  like  carpet  give  a room  a  warmer  feel, which  may  be  suitable for  cooler  dilates

 Resistance to water spills.
The flooring in bathroom sand kitchens need to withstand water spills from washing or plumbing leaks.

 Architectural beauty
The floor finish should provide good appearance eg. Floor tiles process good appearance compare to normal cement screed.


 Concrete floor covering
§  Concrete floor covering is provided over the sub- flooring of about 150mm  thick
§  Normally  depending  on  the requirements  of thickness  of  floor  finish, on  top  of  concrete  bed,  the  cement  screed  is provided  acting  as flooring  finish.

§  Are used as  covering  for  comparatively  cheap  flooring  for  ordinary   sheds, stores, temporary  barracks
§  Good  example  of  brocks  which  are  used  as  flooring  finish  is  engineering bricks.
§  Good  example of bricks  which  are  used as  flooring  finish  is  engineering  bricks.
§  Mixing ratio for mortar depends on the durability required.

§  The  finished  surface  consists  of about  10mm thick  top  layer  of  terrazzo  mixture    
 Procedure for construction of terrazzo
§  Prepare a marble chips  consists  of  3 to  6mm size
§  Mix  with  a white  or  colored  cement  in the proportion of 1: 2 or 1:3
§  Provide patients by  using  dividing strips  of  ( metal  20 gauge) or  glass  or  others  materials.
§  Then laid terrazzo in layers over the prepared surface.

§  The  sub  base is  similar  to terrazzo
§  A thick bedding 6 cm of lime mortal   is placed over the sub – base.
§  After  mortar has  hardened  a  3mm thick  layer  of cement  materials  costing  of  slaked  lime, powdered marble and  pozzolana  in  the  ration  of  2:1:1 is  load
§   After  4  hours  tales of Mable  slabs are kind  in the  specified  Patten
§  The top surface is left for 24 hours and them given a polishing of pumice stone.

§  Tiles are placed on lime concrete or lean cement concrete base.
§  A  thin layer of 1:2 cement mortar   is placed  over  the  sub- base  and  tiles  of  required  shape ,size and  thickness  placed  over  the sub – base

Wooden blocks
§  The  flooring  is normally  constructed in  one  of  the  following  ways  Wood  block covering
§  The sub-bade consists of lime concrete of (1:6:12 or 1:8:16)
§  2 cm thick sand cushioning is provide
§  Then  a  blocks  of  wood  of  sizes  varying  from  20  to  30 in  length, 8 to  10cm  in width  are kind  and properly  joined together.

§  A thin layer of 1:2 cement mortar is placed over the sub- bade and tiles of required shape, size and thickness placed over the sub-base; there are different types of tiles one of them is

Vinyl asbestos tiles

§  These  tiles  are  prepared  in  varying  size  from  225 to 300mm squire  and  thickness of 1,2,3 mm etc.
§  They are available in variety of  colours
§  The  composition  of  the  tiles  is  asbestos  fibers  bonded  with  the 30% polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
§  Before  applying  to  wooden, timber  or  concrete surfaces they  are  warmed  and  foxed  to  the  surface  with  the  help  of bituminous  adhesives.
§  The  finished  surface  resists  mild  alkali  and  acid  attacks  and  is  not  easily  spoilt  by  grease.

 Wooden blocks
§  The flooring is normally constructed in one of the following ways.
§  The  sub- base  consist   of lime  cemerete of (1:6:12 or 1:8;16)
§  2cm  thick  sand  cushioning  is  provided
§  Then  a  blocks of  wood  of sizes  varying from  20 to 30 in   length  8, to  10 cm in width are  aid  and properly  joined together.

§  Structural  glass  is available in  different  patents and  sizo of  slay  carried  by  closely  spaced  frames
§  This  type  of  flooring  is  comparatively  delicate and can  take only      light  loads.
§  It  is  used  in situations  when  light  is required  through the  glass  flooring to the  floor  below.

Vinyl asbestos tiles
§  These  tiles  are  prepared  in  varying  size  from  225 to 300mm squire  and  thickness of 1,2,3 mm etc.
§  They are available in variety of  colours
§  The  composition  of  the  tiles  is  asbestos  fibers  bonded  with  the 30% plying  chloride (PNC)
§  -Before  applying  to  wooden, timber  or  concrete surfaces they  are  warmed  and  foxed  to  the  surface  with  the  help  of bituminous  adhesives.
§  The  finished  surface  resists  mild  alkali  and  acid  attacks  and  is  not  easily  spoilt  by  grease.

§  These varies in term of  colour  materials  used and  Quality. And styles in term of decoration.
§  It cannot use for areas such as toilets or wet areas.


   i.        Cement  screed  and
ii.        Terrazzo

   i.        Mosaic  materials
ii.        Dividing  strips  eg. Metal, wood
iii.        Vinyl  asbestos  tiles eg.PVC  tiles
iv.        Blocks
 v.        Wooden  blocks
vi.        Capart
vii.        Skirting and dividing strip


§  Hacking the existing surface
§  Prepare the materials required
§  Clean the surface before applying the required types of finishes

§  A  bucket
§  A  mixing  board  and  shovel
§  Wood float and steel float
§  Screed board
§  Builders  level
§  Grating  machines  e.g for  terrazzo

   i.        Hacking the existing structure  eg. Hacking concrete.
ii.        Clean the surface  or apply  special  treatment  of  base  required  e.g.  grouting  applying  bonding  agent
iii.        Prepare the materials  required  for  carrying  out  type of  finishes  eg. Preparation  of  mortar, chipping  etc.
iv.        Prepare tools required eg. Buckets  mixing  board and  shovel, wood  floor  or  steal  float, builders  level, screen  board  etc.

§  concrete base
§  Brick work or  Block work  base
§  metal  lathing
§  screened  base
§  Timber base


§  Also  is  the part  of  floor  finish 
§  It  is  the  component  which  separate  the ends  of floor  finish  and plaster.
§  Normally  is  applied  internally
§  It  can  be  cement  sand  screed, timber,   terrazzo, PVC tiles  etc. and standard  size  75- 100mm  width  and depth  of 15- 20mm
§  Architectural  beauty  required  the  skirting  to  relate  with  the type of floor  finishing  applied.

§  These are used to provide patterns on the given surface.
§  It can  be  metal, wood  or  special  rubber  material 
§  It is mostly used during  applying terrazzo  finish.


The  function of  any  floor  is  to provide a  level surface  which is  capable  of  supporting all  the live  and  dead loads  imposed.

In large- scale and multistorey  buildings  the  floors  are  normally  main structural elements  closely  related  to the  general structure of the buildings  and as such  they  must  be  considered  at  the  design  stage.

The main factors influencing the choice of floor type are:

i.           Nature of the building;
           The following is more suitable
§  A precast  concrete floor  
§  steel  deck floor laid could  be  suitable
§  Insitu reinforced  concrete frame   

ii.        Loading
§  Flat slab construction is economical   for heavy uniformly distributed loading.

iii.      Span
§  With increase in the span  and ( in the  load) these  will  normally  be an  increase in the  thickness  and  weight of  a solid floor slab.

iv.      Degree of fire resistance required.
§  This is frequently a determining factor in the choice of floor.

v.         Provision  of  services
§  The large number of services and extensive equipment required in many building determine the types of floor to use.

vi.      Degree of sound insulation required.
§  Weight of structure is important in connection with insulation against air borne sound. The greater the weight the greater the insulation provided. 

vii.   Cost, speed of erection, adaptability.
§  Consideration of cost must enter in to the choice the floor type.


i)          Reinforced concrete floors
These  fall  into the  broad  categories insitu  cast and precast in each of  which  there list  a wide  variety  of  types.

Insitu cast floors
Because  of being wet during  construction  required temporary  support  until the concrete  is  strong  enough  to bear  its loads.

Types of floors under insitu cast floors.

§  Solid concrete floor slabs.
This type  is commonly  used  when the  slab  is  to  act as  a membrane  supporting on  columns  without  beams.

§  Flat slab floor.
This is the other form of insitu concrete floor without projecting beams.

The  system  is design for  heavy  evenly  distributed  superimposed loads and  is  economical for loading of  4.5  KN/M2

Suitable where there is no large openings or little solid partitions
§  Insitu hollow block floor.
This type of floor is lighter than the simple solid slab floor.

On this  type  the  blocks  are laid and  to end  in parallel  rows about  75 to 100mm apart, according to  the width  required.

Reinforcement is  laid  in  these spaces  and  concrete  poured  between  and  over t he blocks.

ii)       Precast floors
The use of precast floors reduces or eliminates the use of shuttering.

In  this type  units are made in  various  width and depth  vary  according  to span and load  required  in connection with  the arrangement  of  beams and  columns.

iii)   Steel deck  floors
The  deck units are relatively  light  in  weight , can be  quickly  hoisted  in  bundles  and  fixed  in position.

iv)     Open  grating  floors
This type of  flooring  is made  up  in steel , aluminum delay  or glass  reinforced  plastic in  panels of varying width  and  length required.

v)        Spring floors.
Gymnasium and dance floors should be resilient.
This resilience is imparted by the use of a sub – floor of timber bearers With or without springs or rockers.

vi)     Cavity  floors  or  Raised  floors
These  are  structural  sub- floors  raised  above the normal  floor  slab  to  form  cavity  to  accommodate example  Cables  etc.

Normally used in the areas such as laboratories and computer rooms etc

Cavity floors fallow into two types:-

§  Battened floors

These provide a shallow  cavity  for  cable server  usually  us  than  100mm in  depth and may  be  formed  by  timber  battens at 300mm centre  supporting  chipboard  flooring  in  which  there  are  removable strips over panels at  intervals.

§  Pedestal floors

These provide a deep cavity over 1000mm so that a normal cable   and environmental services can be accommodated. The  flooring  panels  are supported  on metal  props  or  pedestals which  are  adjustable  in height  to permit leveling of the  floor.

      vi)  Timber floors.
Also  this  is  another  type  of floor  which  is normally  used  where  the                                                              span and loading  required  is not  heavy.

It is  design  in  connection with  supporting  beams or  projecting  beams  in  order  to reduce  the  dead and live loads.


Services  can  be accommodated  above  the structural slab, within  its natural  thickness, below  the slab  or  below  its  supporting  beams.

Services which can be provided;
i.   Electrical conduct
ii.                Pipes for water, heartily, gas or drainage services may be laid either on top of the slab fixed to or suspended from or the soffit.

When laid on top of the slab the thickness of the finishing screed may be considerable especially if some pipe cross each other